© by Darko Zubrinic, Zagreb (1995)
Antun Lucic (americanized name is Anthony F. Lucas ; born in Split 1855, died in Washington 1921) is the father of petroleum industry. He discovered the first major gusher in Texas, The Lucas gusher. flowing at the rate of 80,000 to 100,000 barrels per day. It blew in January 1901. About 50,000 people came to see it. This meant the earliest massive exploitation of oil and petroleum in the world. Antun Lucic, known as Anthony F. Lucas (F. = Francis is after his father Franjo, mariner and shipbuilder from the island of Hvar in Croatia) believed that the nearby Spindletop hill. near the town of Beaumont, covered a vast pool of oil. His company became one of the first oil companies in Texas. Antun Lucic was a mining engineer who completed his studies at the Polytechnic institute in Graz, Austria, where also his fellow countryman Nikola Tesla later studied. By 1902, as many as 285 wells were operating on Spindletop Hill and over 600 oil companies had been chartered (the population of Spindletop sprang from 8,000 in 1901 to 60,000 in 1902, i.e. in just a year!). In this way Captain Anthony Lucas enabled the United States to surpass Russia as the world's leading oil producer. With the Lucas gusher, a black-gold rush began, and fortune-seekers from all over the world poured into Texas. Over time, Houston became a center of the oil industry, and a captive of the British-dominated global oil cartel.
. This picture was taken four days after the oil began to gush. The well went wild for ten days, pouring approximaly 800,000 barrels of oil, and making an oil lake covering some 100 acres of land, before Captain Lucas was able to cap it. Great quantities of oil went as far as Port Arthur, sixteen miles below, on the coast. see [Soric. p 97])
Anthony Lucas (Antun Lucic) invented the so called "Christmas tree", which is the system of valves and pipes installed on the wellhead to harness a gusher. The "Christmas tree" is connected to the piping for transportation or storage of oil.
Christmas tree invented by Anthony Lucas
in order to harness a gusher (photo from [McBeth ])
Anthony Lucas and drilling crew,
Spindle Top, congestion of derrics in 1901-1902 (photo from [McBeth ])
Antun Lucic (Anthony Lucas) on the left (photo from [McBeth ])
The naval fuel board program adopted by the USA Government in 1901 specified that all the vessls should be equiped for the burning of oil as fuel. Railroads in increasing number were using it, and manufacturers were substituting it for coal and gas. At that time the automobile industry just began to develop, and the importance of Lucic's discovery for its further expansion was enormous.
Spindle Top in 1902. A forest of derricks, the might of America, erected around the original Lucas well.
Antun Lucic is also considered to be the founder of modern petroleum reservoir engineering. He was consulting engineer in USA, Russia, Mexico, Algeria, and Romania.
Some of the most important inventions of Anthony F. Lucas, that are still in use, are:
- overhead method of mining in salt mines
- surface exploration of underground mineral deposits
- application of hydraulic rotary rig in oil well drilling
- construction and application of back pressure valve
- use of clay for drilling fluids
- construction of blowout, so called "killing" equipment
- designing of well logs
As an expert in mining he was elected the life long chairman of the American Committee for Oil and Gas (later called Petroleum Division. more information ). In 1936 The American Institute for Geological and Metallurgical Investigations founded a prize named after him: Anthony F. Lucas Gold Medal.
A museum with 18 m high granite obelisk was built in honour to the Lucas gusher in Spindletop. There is also 1,5 m granite monument of Lucic with inscription saying that his discovery revolutionarized industry and transport. and changed lives of people in the whole world .
18 m high granite obelisk, built in honour
to the Lucas gusher, Spindletop, contains the following lines: